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Reptile

How often should you change your Leopard Geckos Substrate?

Cleanliness is one of the most important considerations when it comes to petting a Leopard gecko. To keep your animal fit and free from relatable diseases, cleaning the tank is mandatory. The gecko’s terrarium is a solid structure that is home to this reptile. The behavior of the gecko restricts itself to one tiny corner, making it manageable for individuals to clean the tank and preserve its hygiene. It is always imperative to choose agreeably superior cleaning solutions for your Leopard Gecko, to keep your animal protected and secure. But the question is, ‘’How often should you be changing the substrate?’’.

The main element of the substrate in a gecko’s terrarium:

How often should you change your Leopard Geckos Substrate?

It is usually recognized that sand forms an important element in most aquariums. In that context, the sand is an important substrate, which keeps the reptile calm. Even if the animal poops inside, cleaning is easier within a single scoop. However, the sand quantity that is needed to protect the reptile differs from the reptile breed. Therefore, you have to take full care of the sand quality as well, before you attempt to change the substrate.

After every cleanup session, replacing the quantity of the substrate is mandatory. For individuals having a small tank, the Leopard gecko attempts to accumulate too much dirt and bacteria. This makes the water unhygienic. Therefore, you have to make an attempt to change the substrate the next morning!

Cleaning the tank and changing its substrate, at least once a week, is completely beneficial. If you want the reptile to go through a cleaner living process, maintaining hygienic conditions is the key to survival!

Key elements to take note of when changing the substrate:

How often should you change your Leopard Geckos Substrate?

Before you attempt to replace the old substrate with the best substrate for leopard gecko, the owner must keep in mind some few basics. This is to make the reptile feel safe as well when changing and cleaning of the substrate is done. A few factors that will help to replenish the quality of water and change the substrate are as follows:

  • You cannot replace the substrate for Leopard gecko with anything else. The cage of the reptile should be absolutely empty. This means that all pieces of small furniture, toys, and dishes should be kept away.
  • Next, before changing the old substrate material, sterilizing the tank is an important step. Bleaching is also an important part that can be adopted if there are too many items in the cage. Always remember that the bacteria present in the water is not at all healthy. Therefore, necessary precautions like wearing gloves and keeping a cloth handy can definitely be helpful.
  • Next, check the amount of sand that you need to place inside the cage of the leopard gecko. Place the sand gently, as required in quantity and place other elements within the tank. Now rest the gecko safely!

What’s the changing time phase of the substrate?

How often should you change your Leopard Geckos Substrate?

Not all lizards and reptiles are of mild nature. Some happen to be a little too excited and can cause you extreme trouble. Well, if you have a gecko, then maintaining the quality of the cage and its substrate is truly important. If your tank smells, you can simply think of the cleanliness of your gecko too. Therefore, to avoid any kind of bad smell from coming out of the tank, take some time out to change the substrate with the best quality.

Some of the common recommendations for a substrate changing routine are as follows:

  • Weekly cleaning routine

Not all geckos require daily cleaning of the tank and the substrate. Thus, weekly cleaning is enough to do away with odor and unhygienic conditions. The weekly routine involves sanitizing the tank first and changing the old substrate with a better one. In fact, look for items that are mixed with the old substrate, and try to avoid them in the next batch. If you are attempting to simply clean the substrate, then take note of dead skin, the flesh of small insects, leftover food, etc. Also, pour in freshwater and safely rest your reptile inside.

  • Monthly cleaning routine

The monthly cleaning routine involves the deep cleaning phase. Here, along with changing the substrate, several other procedures are also involved, so as to keep the reptile tank fresh and odor-free. Deep cleaning starts with sterilization and removing all important items from the tank. Drain the water thoroughly. Applying a solution of disinfectants or similar items like bleaching powder is an important recommendation here. This is to make sure that any little poop or unwanted, unhealthy items, do not cause harm to the reptile. Next, choose the best substrate for leopard gecko, and fill water into the tank. Also, check, whether or not the tank needs some internal or external scrubbing. You can do so with the help of an old toothbrush and then refill the water. Now, gently rest the reptile in the water!

Individuals should carefully pay attention to the substrate changing process, to maintain cleanliness and purity in the Leopard gecko’s tank!

What’s the simple warning sign for cleaning and changing the gecko substrate?

How often should you change your Leopard Geckos Substrate?

With the hectic lifestyle of individuals, it is sometimes impossible to pay attention to the needs of pets at home. Adopting to pet a Leopard gecko at home comes with some huge responsibilities. Changing the substrate and taking care of hygiene is one of them. However, if you are a little cautious, you will find simple warning signs, regarding the time to change the substrate. Just when you start to notice any kind of dead insect floating in the water, or fecal matter, immediately make arrangements to replace the sand and renew it with a fresh one. Also, do not forget to sterilize the tank here, so as to pay extra attention to the whole safety standards of living for the wildlife. Also, prefer using good quality sand as a substrate, in case you are planning on changing it periodically and not monthly or weekly!

Hamster

What Is the Minimum Size for a Hamster Cage?

What Is the Minimum Size for a Hamster Cage?

Many brands of pet cages are available on online store and recommended for enhancing the overall comfort of their pets. You may have decided to provide the safe and comfortable place for your pet hamster. You can focus on the minimum size of the hamster cage in detail at first. This is because you have to consider and ensure about the appropriate size of the cage for your pet.

Images and specifications of hamster cages for sale on online give you an overview about how to successfully choose and buy the best suitable cage. You can contact and consult with specialists in the hamster cages right now. You will clarify your doubts and make a good decision to buy a brand-new cage for your pet.

Different types of cages

What Is the Minimum Size for a Hamster Cage?

Well experienced pet owners do their own wooden pens for their favourite hamster. However, beginners to the pet care usually prefer the aquarium tank to house the hamster. There are loads of categories of cages for hamsters. You can focus on all these categories of cages in detail and get an overview about how to successfully compare and narrow down loads of cages.

The four main categories of hamster cages on the market are wire top cages, aquariums, wooden cages and plastic tank cages. You must understand and also remember that hamsters prefer the maximize size of the ages as they like more than the minimum in terms of their habitat.  You can consider your hamster breed and decide on the size of the cage for your pet.

Wire-top cages are very popular forms of hamster cages. There is a plastic bottom and a wire formation arching over it in the wire-top cage. There are two types of wire-top cages for both large Syrian hamsters and dwarf Chinese hamsters. The gap between bars in the large and dwarf hamster cages are 12mm and 8mm respectively.

Doors in the wire-top cages let pet owners to open them as per requirements especially cleaning. Plastic tank cages are simple forms of cages for hamsters. These cages can be enhanced for supporting the hamsters these cages are too small for hamsters and cause these pets to become bored.

Tank

An aquarium can be modified to be the best glass cage for your hamster. Any hamster cannot chew glass pens as smooth walls and no projections. Glass tanks are heavy and complex to maintain on a regular basis. Hamster owners with a desire to make the hamster cage on their own can prefer the wooden cage option. Many hamster breeders choose the wooden material for customized cages with a large number of pens for maximum number of hamsters.

Prefer and buy the suitable size of the cage

What Is the Minimum Size for a Hamster Cage?

Choosing the cage with the appropriate dimensions is very important to get the desired enhancement in the pet care. You can contact and consult with experts in the cages for hamsters soon after you have decided to choose and buy a brand-new cage for your pet. You’ll get the absolute guidance and make positive changes in your approach to find and buy one of the most suitable cages. You will get an array of advantages from the competitive price of the high-quality hamster cages.

The size of the Syrian hamster’s cage has to be at least 24 inches long by 12 inches wide. The cage larger than standard size is better when it comes to the overall comfort of the hamster. The large size of the cage is very helpful to the pet owner to easily clean it. This cage enhances the comfort of the hamster due to enough ventilation. If you choose and buy a large cage, then you can fill it with fun and useful things to make your hamster comfortable, healthy and safe on a regular basis.

Make certain about the cage’s dimensions

What Is the Minimum Size for a Hamster Cage?

The overall size of the cage is not the only factor to keep in mind while choosing the cage for your hamster. You have to focus on some important things like the hamster breed, ventilation issues, stimulation, space for exercising and the total number of hamsters. The minimum ground area for the best hamster cage is 360 square inches. You can focus on and make certain about the overall size of the cage for your pet before investing in it. You must make clear any doubt related to the pet cage and decide on how to successfully invest in the suitable cage.

We can contact and discuss with the hamster cage experts soon after you have planned to make positive changes in your way to prefer and buy the hamster cage. You’ll get loads of benefits from the professional approach to pick and order the cage for your hamster.

Select and buy the cage for your hamster

What Is the Minimum Size for a Hamster Cage?

Hamsters do not like to live in small cramped conditions. If they live in such cage, then they display signs of repetitive behaviours and depression. You can consult with the customer support team in the shop specialized in the hamster cages. You will get the absolute assistance and decide on the stress-free method to directly choose and buy the cage for your hamster. This is advisable to spend enough time and clarify any doubt about the hamster cages. You must improve your proficiency about hamster cages and fulfil expectations about the investment in one of the most suitable cages for your pet.

Designers and manufacturers of the hamster cage worldwide nowadays have a commitment to providing the best yet competitive prices of cages as per requirements of the pet owners. They are very conscious about the overall size and quality of the material used to make the cages for hamsters. They do not compromise any important thing related to the cage of the hamster.

Regular updates of hamster cages on the market give you curiosity to pick and order one of these cages on online from the comfort of your home. However, you have to research cages specially designed for hamsters and make essential changes in your method to find and buy the suitable cage.

USEFUL INFORMATION

TAPEWORM FACT SHEET

Humans have enjoyed the companionship of their four footed friends for centuries. Pets bring unconditional love, but they are sometimes accompanied by zoonotic parasites. A number of scientific studies have found that direct contact with pets can put people at risk for infection with zoonotic parasites.

What is a Zoonotic Parasite?

A parasite is an animal that lives upon or within another living organism at whose expense it obtains nutrients and shelter zoonotic parasites can be transmitted from pets to humans.

What are tapeworms?

Tapeworms are long, flat, are made up of many segments and can sometimes be several feet long. These parasites live in small intestines of dogs, cats, other domestic animals and wildlife. Tapeworms do not have a mouth, and instead hold onto the inside of the intestine with suckers. Some also have hooks that strengthen their attachment.

Who in the family is at risk?

Outdoor pets, pets with fleas or pets around infected animals are at risk of becoming infected with tapeworms. There is one species of tapeworm in dogs that can be transmitted to people resulting in serious disease. Children run a higher risk of coming in contact with zoonotic parasites due to their play habits, attraction to pets and pica (dirt eating).

How does infection occur?

Pets are commonly infected with tapeworms though the ingestion of fleas in the process of normal grooming, licking, or chewing. Pets can also contract the parasite by eating rodents or other animals. Humans can get the disease by either means of ingestion as well.

How do I know if my pet is infected?

Most commonly, pet parents will notice tapeworm segments (pieces of the worm passed as the worm grows in the intestines) around the anal area or on the surface of stool. The segments may be moving or may appear as grains of rice caught in the hair around the rectum. They may also be found in places where infected pets rest and sleep. By performing fecal exams annually, your
veterinarian may also detect tapeworm eggs before you see any symptoms at home. Some pets, especially kittens or puppies, do become noticeably ill and symptoms can include:
Vomiting
Severe weight loss
Loss of appetite
Swollen stomach
Severe anemia
Death

How are they treated?

Tapeworms are treated with an injection or oral medication. Treatment may need to be repeated and infection with tapeworms can reoccur anytime a pet has
fleas or ingests rodents or wildlife. Common over-thecounter dewormers are not usually effective in treating tapeworms.

What can you do to protect the entire family?

Schedule annual physical exams and fecal exams for your family pet
Practice good, consistent flea control that is recommended by your veterinarian
Quickly clean up after your pets to remove potentially infective eggs from your environment before weather, insects, or active migration of the larvae allows them to spread
Keep pets from eating rodents or wildlife
Discourage children from eating soil
Cover sand boxes when not in use, and avoid possibly contaminated areas
Practice good hygiene for both your family and your pet

USEFUL INFORMATION

ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN REPTILES AND BIRDS FACT SHEET

Humans have enjoyed the companionship of their scaly, furry and feathered friends for centuries. Pets bring unconditional love, but are sometimes accompanied by zoonotic diseases. A number of scientific studies have found that direct contact with pets can put people at risk for the transmission of a zoonotic disease.

WHAT IS A ZOONOTIC DISEASE?

Zoonotic diseases are any disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans and vice versa. This handout discusses two zoonotic diseases.

WHAT IS SALMONELLA?

Salmonella is an intestinal bacterium most commonly found in reptiles, but may also occur in dogs. Salmonella, however, is rarely found in cats.

Who in the family is at risk for Salmonella?

Salmonella is a zoonotic disease capable of being spread from animals to people. Since all reptiles are potential carriers, reptile owners have a higher risk of exposure. Pregnant women, young children and those with a compromised immune system (cancer patients, AIDS patients, chronically diseased) should avoid contact with reptiles.

How is Salmonella transmitted?

Salmonella is spread by direct or indirect contact. Children may contact the infection by putting their hands in their mouths after handling the reptile prior to thorough washing. Bathing a reptile, cleaning the cage or cleaning feeding dishes of your scaly friend in the kitchen sink can be an indirect source of infection to family members as well. Do not touch your face with your hands directly after handling your reptile and do not allow your reptile to touch your face as this can increase the chances of disease transmission.

How do I know if my pet or I is infected with Salmonella?

People may experience sudden onset of watery or mucous diarrhea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain and lethargy. Reptiles do not show symptoms of Salmonella, thus all reptiles should be regarded as possible carriers. This does not mean that reptiles cannot be enjoyed and played with. For the right family, reptiles make excellent pets. Good hygiene such as thorough hand washing should be employed after playing with any pet.

How is Salmonella treated?

Since diagnosis can be difficult, treatment in dogs is often symptomatic, including medications to help with diarrhea, vomiting, fever and pain. Specific antibiotics can be used to treat a diagnosed Salmonella infection. Seek medical attention from your veterinarian if you have any concerns about your pet’s health and visit your family practitioner for any health questions about your family.

What can you do to protect the entire family from Salmonella?

Pets with known infections should be isolated from other pets and family members and treated by your veterinarian. In people, practice good hygiene for both your family and pet. Encourage family members to wash exposed areas of skin after petting and playing with pets. Food/water dishes, cages, and reptiles should be kept out of food preparation areas.

WHAT IS CHLAMYDIA?

Chlamydia is a bacterial agent most commonly affecting birds, but is occasionally found in cats as well.

Who in the family is at risk for Chlamydia?

Chlamydia, also called Psitticosis, is a zoonotic disease capable of infection people. Infected people may also be a source of infection for birds. Since birds often carry the bacteria without being affected by it, bird owners are at increased risk.

How is Chlamydia transmitted?

Chlamydia is spread from birds and cats to people by inhaling or ingesting the bacteria from eye or respiratory discharge, stool or urine. Higher risk contact can occur while cleaning cages or visiting areas with a high volume of birds (chicken coops, etc.) but exposure can occur anywhere birds are present. Do not touch your face with your hands directly after handling your
bird and do not allow your bird to touch your face as this can increase the chances of disease transmission.

How do I know if my pet or I is infected with Chlamydia?

In cats, the infection can cause a mild inflammation of the tissues around the eye (conjunctivitis). Birds may be asymptomatic (without noticeable symptoms) or demonstrate eye or nasal discharge, trouble breathing, fluffed up or miserable appearance, bright green stool or green discoloration of the urates (the white material often mistaken for feces). People infected with Chlamydia may experience flu like symptoms including fever, headache and muscle aches. They may also develop atypical pneumonia, which can progress to serious neurological disease or heart disease. Seek medical attention from your veterinarian if you have any concerns about your pet’s health and visit your family practitioner for any health questions about your human family.

How is Chlamydia treated?

Treatment can be very difficult in birds. Diagnosis in cats and birds will be treated with antibiotics such as tetracycline and symptomatically.

What can you do to protect the entire family from Chlamydia?

All new birds entering an aviary, including multi bird households, should be screened for Chlamydia. Pets with known infections should be isolated from other pets and family members and treated by a veterinarian. In people, practice good hygiene for both your family and pet. Encourage family members to wash exposed areas of skin after petting and playing with pets. Food/water dishes, cages and birds should be kept out of food preparation areas.
Besides Salmonella and Chlamydia there are many other zoonotic diseases that pet parents may be exposed to such as fungal disease, respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal diseases. Due to this it is imperative that good hygiene and the above safety precautions are implemented by all family members.

USEFUL INFORMATION

Zoonotic Skin Fungus: Ringworm Fact Sheet

Humans have enjoyed the companionship of their fourfooted friends for centuries. Pets bring unconditional love, but they are sometimes accompanied by zoonotic diseases. A number of scientific studies have found that direct contact with pets can put people at risk for the transmission of zoonotic diseases.

What is a zoonotic parasite?

A fungus is an organism that lives upon or within another living organism at whose expense it obtains nutrients and shelter. Zoonotic fungi can be transmitted from pets to humans and vice versa.

Ringworm

Ringworm is a zoonotic disease and is not actually a worm, but rather a fungus found in the soil that can infect the skin. Ringworms most commonly recognized in cats (often kittens), although dogs, rabbits and rodents can also become infected as well.

Who in the family is at risk for ringworm?

All family members who handle an infected animal are at risk. People who spend time cuddling and sleeping with infected pets are more at risk to become infected. Children run a higher risk, as well, of coming in contact with a zoonotic parasite due to their play habits and attraction to pets. Some people may be more susceptible than others to ringworm infection.

How is ringworm transmitted?

Ringworm is spread by direct contact with an infected animal by fungal spores in their hair or scales. Cats and kittens can spread the infection on themselves or between cats through grooming.

How do I know if my pet or I are infected with ringworm?

In animals, ringworm often appears as a crusty or scaly patch on the skin, and is sometimes accompanied with alopecia (hair loss). In people, the infection may appear on the skin as a ring with reddish borders (often on the face and hands). The infected areas may or may not itch and often have flaky edges. Infection can also appear on people’s scalp, beginning as a small raised area (papule). The hair then becomes brittle and the area increases in size, resulting in scaly, bald patches.

How is ringworm treated?

Ringworm requires medical attention. In pets, treatment may include bathing with special shampoo and applications of topical antifungal ointment to the infected area. For infections non-responsive to bathing and topicals, or in the case of widespread infection, oral medications may be needed. Humans usually respond to topical antifungal ointments.

What can you do to protect the entire family from ringworm?

Be aware of who your pets play with and discourage or prevent contact with ringworm-infected pets. In people, practice good hygiene for both your family and pet. Encourage family members to wash exposed areas of skin after petting and playing with pets. Seek medical attention from your veterinarian if you notice your pet is chewing at her skin or itching or you see any unusual hair
loss or skin concerns.

USEFUL INFORMATION

ZOONOTIC SKIN PARASITES: SCABIES FACT SHEET

Humans have enjoyed the companionship of their fourfooted friends for centuries. Pets bring unconditional love, but they are sometimes accompanied by zoonotic parasites. A number of scientific studies have found that direct contact with pets can put people at risk for the transmission of zoonotic parasites.

What is a zoonotic parasite?

A parasite is an animal that lives upon or within another living organism at whose expense it obtains nutrients and shelter. Zoonotic parasites can be transmitted from pets to humans.

SCABIES (MANGE)

Scabies, also referred to as mange, is caused by a small animal called a mite. Mites are members of the arachnid family (spiders, etc.) that live within the hair follicle. They are microscopic and cannot be seen with the human eye. Scabies mites gain their nutrients by feeding on the blood of their host (animal they are living on).

Who in the family is at risk for scabies?

Pets become infected with a different kind of scabies mite than the mite that causes scabies in humans. If your pet is infected with scabies, and they have close contact with you, the mite can burrow into your skin and cause itching and skin irritation for several days. However, on humans the mite dies in a couple of days and does not reproduce. Until your pet is successfully treated, mites can continue to burrow into your skin and cause you to have symptoms.

If your symptoms persist past the successful treatment of your pet you will need to seek medical attention from your physician. All family members who handle an infected animal are at risk. People who spend time cuddling and sleeping with infected pets are more commonly infected. Children run a higher risk of coming in contact with these itchy mites due to their play habits and attraction to pets.

How is scabies transmitted?

There are many different types of mites that are species specific meaning they need a particular host to carry out their lifecycle. In the wrong host they cause discomfort but cannot go through their full life cycle. Scabies mites are spread by direct contact with an infected animal or environment.

How do I know if my pet is infected with
scabies?

In animals, scabies most commonly affects the skin of the tips of the ears, face, muzzle and elbows. In pets with other serious medical issues or immune system problems, the infection may spread over the entire body. The infection causes crusting of the skin, hair loss and intense itching. Pets become infected with a different kind of scabies mite than the mite that causes scabies in humans.

How is scabies treated?

Scabies requires medical attention and will not clear up on its own. Pets are treated with medications to kill the mites. They may also require medications to treat the itching and any other skin problems caused by the itching (scratches, wounds, etc.). Scabies can be life threatening in pets with weakened immune systems or when the infection has spread over the entire body. People who
suspect they have scabies should seek medical attention.

What can you do to protect the entire
family from scabies?

Be aware of who your pets play with and discourage or prevent contact with scabies-infected pets. Practice good hygiene for both your family and pet and encourage family members to wash exposed areas of skin after petting and playing with pets. Seek medical attention from your veterinarian if you notice your pet is chewing at his skin or itching.